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Appendices

The EnviroDIY team created the EnviroDIY Mayfly Sensor Station Manual and appendices to help you build, program, install, and manage an EnviroDIY Sensor Station.

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1.Battery and Solar Options #

If an EnviroDIY Sensor Station is located in an area with sparse vegetation and little tree cover (i.e. open field, golf course etc.) with access to direct sunlight for more than an hour each day, a small 3.7 V 2500 mAh lithium ion battery will be sufficient to power the station (Figure A.1). For use in a moderately sunny area where there is more vegetation and tree cover prevalent, a 3.7 V 4400 mAh lithium ion battery will be necessary (Figure A.1). This is the standard choice for the Mayfly Data Logger station, and will be sufficient in most scenarios. This battery can usually last about two or three weeks without a solar panel connected, depending on the cellular signal in the area. For use in heavily wooded locations where shade dominates most of the year (i.e. abundant evergreen vegetation) or in situations where the logger station needs to be hidden (i.e., no solar panel cannot be used) a 3.7 V 6600 mAh lithium ion battery will be needed (Figure A.1).

The solar panel that is most often used for the EnviroDIY Data Logger station is a 6 V 3.5 W solar panel created by Voltaic Systems (Figure A.2). The substrate is an aluminum/plastic combination. These panels are waterproof, scratch resistant, and UV resistant, making them suitable for long-term outdoor use. Typically, one of these solar panels will fully charge a battery in about an hour if there is access to direct sunlight. Depending on site specific conditions, smaller or larger solar panels may be necessary. If a station is located in an area that has more than average sunlight (i.e. an open field with little vegetation) a 6 V 2 W solar panel will be sufficient to fully charge the logger station’s battery (Figure A.2). However, If a station is located in an area with extremely dense vegetation and very little sunlight a 6 V 6.0 W solar panel will be necessary (Figure A.2). These different size solar panels can all be attached to the Mayfly Data Logger using the same universal solar panel bracket from Voltaic Systems and a U-bolt with associated hardware.

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2.Example Data #

Example plots of Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) and turbidity sensor data

Figure B.1. Example plots of CTD and turbidity sensor data. Logger temperature is measured by the Mayfly logger board and represents temperature inside the logger box. Battery level is also measured by the Mayfly logger board – target level is 3.7 V or higher. TurbLow is finer scale and has a maximum level of 250 NTU; TurbHigh is coarser and has no maximum; the offset between the two is inconsequential and is due to logger board coding logistics. Data from Hosensack Creek, near East Greenville, Pennsylvania.

See the Troubleshooting appendix for more examples.

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3.Commercial Sensors #

Meter Parameter ~Price (2018)
FlowTracker2 handheld Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Velocity, discharge $15,000
Hach FH950 Velocity, discharge $7,000
Swoffer 3000 and other models Velocity, discharge $2000-2500
OTT MF pro Velocity, discharge $6000-8000
OTT C31 Velocity, discharge
OTT C2 Velocity, discharge (small streams)
Global Water Flow Probe Velocity $1,000
MJP Student Stream Flowmeter Velocity $250
Flow Rate Sensor Velocity $130
YSI multiparameter water quality meters Conductivity, temperature, depth, pH, DO, turbidity, Nitrate $2000-9000
Hydrolab Quanta Multi-Probe Meter Conductivity, temperature,depth, pH, ORP, DO turbidity $5000-6000
Hydrolab MS5 – Mulitparameter Mini Sonde Temperature, Conductivity, Depth, pH,ORP, DO, Turbidity, Chlorophyll a, Blue-Green Algae, Rhodamine WT, Ammonium, Nitrate, Chloride, TDG $7000-9000
Hanna, HI9829 pH, ORP, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, temperature $2,550-5000
Multiparameter pH/ISE/EC/DO/Turbidity Waterproof Meter with optional GPS
Hanna, HI99301, Portable High Range EC/TDS Meter Conductivity, TDS, temperature $185
Hanna, HI98129 Conductivity, pH, TDS, temperature $150
pH/Conductivity/TDS Tester (Low Range)
Hanna, HI98130 Conductivity, pH, TDS $150
pH/Conductivity/TDS Tester (High Range)
Oakton, ECTestr™ 11 Conductivity, TDS, temperature $92
Hanna, HI98303 Conductivity, temperature (0-2000μS/cm), Res 1μS/cm $52
DiST® 3 Waterproof EC Tester (0-2000 µS/cm)
Hanna, HI98304 Conductivity, temperature (0-20,000 µS/cm), Res 10 µS/com $52
DiST® 4 Waterproof EC Tester (0.00-20.00 mS/cm)
Hach Test Strips (30-600 mg/L) Chloride, pH, chlorine, nitrate and nitrite, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia $13-50
Hach, Chloride QuanTab® Test Strips, 300-6000 mg/L Chloride $48.85
Hanna turbidity meters Turbidity $700-1100
Global Water Portable Turbidity Meter Turbidity $1,500
TPS, WP-88 Turbidity Meter Turbidity $2,000
Thermo Scientific™ Orion™ AQUAfast AQ3010 Turbidity Meter Turbidity $990
Hach 2100Q Portable Turbidimeter Turbidity $1,215
Sper Turbidity Meter, 860040 Turbidity $349
Carolina® Turbidity Tube, 120 cm Turbidity $78
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4.Field Supplies Checklist #

Purpose Equipment and supplies for site visits Provided by
General Field Visit Data form Stroud
General Waders (knee, hip, or chest) Group
General Clipboards Group
General Mechanical pencils Group
General Field notebook Group
General GPS Group
General Camera Group
General First aid kit Group
Data download Combination to logger box lock Stroud
Data download MicroSD card Stroud
Data download MicroSD card adaptor Stroud
Station maintenance Sensor brush Stroud
Station maintenance Pliers Group
Station maintenance Hose clamp driver Stroud
Station maintenance Vegetation snips, shears, loppers, etc. Group
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Discharge Data form Stroud
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Flow meter Group
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Neutrally buoyant object Group
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Stopwatch Group
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Measuring tape (tagline) – 50 m Group
Supplemental sampling (discharge measurement) Survey rod or meter stick Group
Supplemental sampling (grab samples) Grab sample bottles (pre-labeled) Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab samples) Cooler Group
Supplemental sampling (grab samples) Ice or ice packs (for cooling grab sample on-site) Group
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) Shipping bags Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) Insulated grab sample bags Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) Ice packs Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) Ziploc bags Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) Chain-of-custody forms Stroud
Supplemental sampling (grab sample shipping) FedEx pre-paid/pre-filled shipping labels Stroud
     
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5.Maintenance Checklist #

Learn About Your Station and Watershed

Daily: Monitor Data at MonitorMyWatershed.org

  • Learn the patterns for your particular station.
  • Look for sensor fouling particularly with the turbidity sensor, identify abnormal patterns and visit station for maintenance accordingly.
  • Track battery level and potential cellular data transmission issues; battery level should be > 3.7 V for optimal function.

Weekly (or According to Your Specific Situation): Visit the Sensor Station

  • Clean the sensors and the area under and around the sensors.
  • Clear the area around logger and solar panel.
  • Fill out Field Visit Data Form.
  • Always record what was done on site visit – if no check boxes on Field Visit Data  Form address the issue, describe what was done in comments sections.
  • Always record staff-gauge height.
  • Check accuracy of station sensors using handheld sensors (if available).
  • Enter data from Field Visit Data Form and/or in field notebook.

Every Six Weeks: Download Data From MicroSD Card

  • If data are not online, download data as needed for monitoring purposes, at least every six weeks.
  • If data are online, download data from microSD card when cellular connections fail and data stop transmitting to website, fill in gaps with microSD card data.
  • Suggested title format:  “Sitename/ID_mm-dd-yy”

Every Six to Eight Weeks: Back up Online Data

  • Save in Excel to a secure hard drive or server.
  • Suggested title format:  “Site name/ID_mm-dd-yy”
  •  

Continuously: Develop the Station Management Process

  • Refine the maintenance process as understanding of site and station is developed.
  • Continue to refine the project plan and how station and data are used.
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6.Supplemental Sampling Checklist #

Discharge

  • Know the water levels at which you need to collect discharge measurements (i.e., know what staff gauge heights and sensor depths you need for developing rating curve). Use past data minimum and maximum staff gauge heights and sensor depths to estimate ranges and focus timing of discharge measurements.
  • Monitor online sensor depth data and weather forecasts so that you can time your sampling according to the water levels you’d like to measure.
  • Measure discharge once or multiple times (using any of the methods described in the Measuring and Predicting Discharge Appendix), making sure to fully complete a Stream Discharge Data Form (including precise times, staff gauge levels, and sensor depths) each time you measure discharge.
    • If time and conditions allow, measure discharge multiple times as water rises and/or falls so as to fill out rating curve (from baseflow to stormflow within the confined stream channel).
    • Try to measure discharge when water level is relatively stable and is not quickly rising or falling – this can be challenging and is a reason that developing rating curves can be difficult.
  • Enter data from Stream Discharge Data form into Discharge Rating Curve Calculator.

Grab Samples

  • Know the turbidity and/or conductivity levels at which you need to collect grab samples; use past data minimum and maximum levels to estimate ranges and focus timing of grab sample collection.
  • Monitor online sensor turbidity and/or conductivity data and weather forecasts so that you can time your visit(s) to the station to coincide with target levels at which grab samples should be collected.
  • If you are shipping samples to a lab, plan to have shipping supplies ready so that samples can be shipped ASAP after collection.
  • Collect grab sample(s) and complete a Field Visit Data Form for each grab sample collected.
  • Place grab sample(s) on ice or in refrigerator until shipping or delivery to lab.
  • Pack and ship sample according to lab protocols. Make sure to not ship on Friday-Sunday if lab does not accept weekend deliveries.
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7.Measuring and Predicting Discharge #

7.1.Overview #

Discharge can be measured in many different ways and efficacy of methods varies in relation to stream size, flow patterns and dimensions, as well as in relation to cost, functionality, and condition of equipment used. For discharge measurements used in association with EnviroDIY Sensor Station data, several methods are recommended. Most streams on which EnviroDIY Sensor Stations are deployed are between first and fourth order, meaning they are wadeable, at least during baseflow and moderate stormflow. Therefore, methods presented here are primarily intended for use in wadeable streams; however, a method is also included that uses modeling to develop data that can be used to estimate discharge during unwadeable (stormflow) conditions.

Discharge is measured as the quantity of water (measured as cubic meters or cubic feet) moving in a stream over time (measured as seconds). Discharge (often represented as “Q”) is calculated by multiplying the wetted cross sectional area (A) of a stream (at the time of sampling) by the velocity (V) of the water moving in the stream: Q (m3/s) = V (m/s) x A (m2). Velocity is the primary measure collected using a flow meter. Wetted cross sectional area is measured using a tape measure and survey rod. Some flow meters can calculate discharge internally, but this still requires measurement and entry of wetted distance and depth data into the instrument.

Discharge can be used to determine the total load of anything being carried by that water. So for instance, if the concentration of chloride is known in a stream, the amount of water moving in the stream (discharge) can then be used to calculate the actual amount (load – pounds or kilograms) of chloride in the stream. Discharge should be measured as regularly as practical, but it is much more important to get measurements over a range of flows than to get many measurements at a single flow. You should make it your goal to measure discharge when the water is as high as possible and at least five measurements between the peak flood flow (within the confined channel) and baseflow.

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7.2.Methods for Estimating and Measuring Discharge #

There are a variety of methods for estimating and measuring discharge, ranging from rough mathematical estimates based on stream surveys to precision measurements of velocity using acoustic dopplers. The best method for each stream depends on the size of the stream and the equipment you have available.

  • In a very small stream (i.e., one that you can jump across) the best methods for measuring stream flow are to install a flume or weir or to perform a salt-dilution and trace the resulting conductivity. However, a flow meter can also be used and in many cases this may be the most cost and time effective method.
  • In a medium sized stream (i.e., one that is small enough to wade into but too large to jump across) the best method for measuring stream velocity is using a water velocity meter or current profiler.  Another option for measuring stream velocity using a neutral-buoyant object and a stopwatch. Discharge is then calculated by multiplying velocity times wetted cross sectional area (based on the cross-section survey or horizontal distance and water depth measurements).
  • In a larger river or small or medium stream that is at stormflow (i.e., one that is not wadeable), the best method for measuring streamflow is using a tethered current profiler.  If those instruments are not available, the neutral-buoyant object method can be used or a few select velocity measurements can be taken with a flow meter at accessible/wadeable locations. These coarse estimates of velocity (i.e., taken with neutral buoyant object or select flow meter readings) can then be used along with the predicted wetted cross sectional area generated by the Stage to Area Predictor spreadsheet to calculate discharge.
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7.2.1.Measuring Discharge With a Flow Meter #

Step-by-step directions for developing discharge estimates using a flow meter (and other equipment) are provided below. You may also reference standard USGS protocols (Rantz, S.E. 1982. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 2175: Measurement and Computation of Streamflow, https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/wsp2175/). Record the data on the Stream Discharge Data form according to directions below. The conventional flow meter method involves pulling a tagline across the stream perpendicular to the flow of the stream and taking measurements of water depth and velocity at six-tenths depth at at least 15 points across the stream, attempting to have no more than 10% of the stream flow between any two intervals. The measurement cross section should be taken in a straight, clear section of stream, as free as possible from unusual sources of water turbidity, eddies, or uneven flow and both deep and broad enough to ensure quality measurements from whatever instrument you have available. At most sites were EnviroDIY Sensor Stations have been installed a cross section will have already been chosen and bank pins installed. All future discharge measurements should be done at this location. Be sure to record the time (and timezone) when you start and finish taking measurements. Also record the stream staff gauge height and sensor depth at start and at end.

Materials for Measuring Discharge With a Flow Meter

  • Discharge Data Sheet or field notebook
  • Clipboard
  • Pencil
  • Measuring tape: string tape between bank pins, use it for “Distance Along Tagline” column
  • Watch or phone, for completing start time and stop time
  • Flow meter: use it to measure velocity. Probe should be positioned a little over halfway down in the water column (60%, i.e., Water Depth x 0.6)
    • Flow meter wand can also be used to measure water depth./li>
  • Meter stick or survey rod: use it to measure water depth.
  • Smart phone or tablet, to check sensor-reported water depth (if EnviroDIY Sensor Station data are online)
  • Umbrella, for protecting flow meter monitor when measuring during storms

Procedure for Measuring Discharge With a Flow Meter

In cases in which, 1) a flow meter is available, and 2) water is wadeable, the following steps can be taken to estimate discharge. Generally, it is recommended that at least 15 measurements be taken. See Figure G.1 in reference to the steps below:

  1. String measuring tape between bank pins making sure it’s tight enough so that there is little sag in the tape.
  2. Complete the following on Stream Discharge Data form before starting measurements:
    1. Start time
    2. Staff gauge height at start
    3. Sensor-reported water depth at start
  3. Fill out “Cross Section and Velocity” section of Stream Discharge Data form:
    1. Point 1 (first line of Stream Discharge Data form)
      1. Point 1 (under Points to Note column) should always be either Left Pin (LPIN) or Right Pin (RPIN). Remember that right and left are defined looking downstream.
      2. Distance Along Tagline column will always be the point along the measuring tape at which a measurement was taken. At point 1 this will generally be 0, unless the tape being used does not start at 0 (i.e., it’s been broken).
      3. Water Depth and Velocity at point 1 will always be 0, since the measurement is at the bank pin.
    2. Point 2 (second line of Stream discharge form)
      1. Point 2 will always be Left Edge of Water (LEW) or Right Edge of Water (REW)
      2. Distance Along Tagline for Point 2 will be the distance from the bank pin to the edge of water as measured on the measuring tape.
        1. If the transition from bank to water is gradual (i.e., not a cut bank) Water Depth and Velocity will both be 0, i.e., the point where the water meets the land.
        2. If the transition from bank to water is vertical or near-vertical cut bank Water Depth and Velocity are measured as close to the side as possible (if water is deep and flowing, Water Depth and Velocity measurements should represent those conditions).
    3. Point 3 and on, until edge of water on the other side
      1. Record distance along tagline in row 3.
      2. Measure water depth at this same distance. Measure using either the flow meter wand or using a surveyor’s rod (the surveyors rod will be necessary only in cases in which the water depth exceeds the length of the flow meter wand)
      3. Measure Velocity using flow meter according to specific flow meter model specifications.
        1. Measure velocity at 60% of the total water depth (a bit over halfway down in the water column) at that specific location along the tagline.
        2. Make sure to keep the flow meter probe steady or it may affect accuracy of readings.
        3. If the measurement is being taken in slow and/or turbulent water it may be necessary to take multiple readings to get a sense of variability.  If readings are consistently variable at a particular location take a mean/median type average and note this in Comments column on Stream Discharge Data form.
    4. Continue taking measurements across the stream trying to distribute measurements evenly and also positioning measurement locations to represent distinct changes in water depth and/or velocity. It is recommended to take at least 15 measurements.
    5. At the edge of water on the far side of the stream, follow instruction 2a and 2b in reverse.
  4. When stream measurements are finished, make sure to complete the following:
    1. Start time
    2. Staff gauge height at end
    3. Sensor-reported water depth at end
  5. Once measurements are complete, enter data into Discharge Rating Curve Calculator spreadsheet
  6. Miscellaneous guidance notes:
    1. If sensor depth cannot be accessed while measurements are being taken (i.e., if smart phone or tablet is not available and/or there is no cell coverage available) it is extremely important to note the exact start time and stop time, so that these times can be used to determine sensor-reported water depth later when access to the sensor data is available.
    2. The 60% depth for velocity measurements is recommended but if water is extremely shallow and/or there are rocks or debris preventing accurate velocity measurement it may be necessary to change the depth at which velocity is measured. If this is done make sure to note it in the Comments section.

Figure G.1. Diagrams explaining use of Stream Discharge Data form when measuring wetted area and velocity (using a flow meter).

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7.2.2.Measuring Discharge With a Float #

If a flow meter is not available, velocity can be measured by timing a neutrally buoyant object as it floats over a defined distance. This is a widely accepted method for measuring stream flow when no other method is available. If the water is relatively clear a peeled orange can be used.  A peeled orange will achieve true neutral buoyancy as it sinks down below the water’s surface without going all the way to the bottom. However, because water is often cloudy or muddy when discharge is measured, it may be necessary to use an object that floats closer to the surface and is visible. An unpeeled orange or other object such as a wiffle ball that will rest near the surface of the water is recommended when water is turbid. These objects will rest in the surface layer and will float with the main flow of the stream as necessary for this type of velocity measurement. Objects that sit on top of the surface of the water such as a ping pong ball are not recommended because they are more vulnerable to surface water currents as well as wind. Water velocity is determined by timing the neutrally buoyant object as it floats over a defined length of stream channel.

Step-by-step directions for developing discharge estimates using a neutrally buoyant object (and other equipment) are provided below. You may also reference chapter 5, section 1 of the EPA’s 1997 document Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual or in chapter 2 section 7 of the Mid-Atlantic Tributary Assessment Coalition’s Sampling and data analysis protocols for Mid-Atlantic non-tidal stream indicators.

Materials for Measuring Discharge With a Float

  • Discharge Data form
  • Clipboard
  • Pencil
  • Neutrally buoyant object (orange, wiffle ball)
  • Measuring tape
    • String tape between bank pins, use it for “Distance Along Tagline” column
    • Measure length of float of neutral buoyant object (“TOTAL Travel Distance”)
  • Meter stick or survey rod, use it to measure water depth
  • Watch or phone, for completing start time and stop time
  • Smart phone or tablet, to check sensor-reported water depth (if EnviroDIY Sensor Station data are online)
  • Umbrella, for protecting phone/tablet when measuring during storms
  • Stopwatch, use it to time float of neutrally buoyant object

Procedure for Measuring Discharge With a Float

In cases in which, 1) a neutrally buoyant object will be used to measure water velocity and 2) water is wadeable, the following steps can be taken to estimate discharge.  Generally, it is recommended that at least 15 measurements be taken. Note that these steps are exactly the same as those for measuring discharge with a flow meter, except a neutrally buoyant object is timed over a specific distance to determine velocity instead of using a flow meter. The cross sectional wetted area is determined in the same way for both methods (i.e., measuring tape is strung between bank pins and water depth measurements are made in regular intervals across the stream channel).

  1. String measuring tape tightly between bank pins
    1. *Alternatively, use the Stage to Area Predictor to predict Wetted Cross Sectional Area and complete steps 2 and 4 below (skip number 3, which is manual measurements used to calculate Wetted Cross Sectional Area)
  2. Complete the following on Stream Discharge Data form before starting measurements:
    1. Start time
    2. Staff gauge height at start
    3. Sensor-reported water depth at start
  3. Measure cross sectional wetted area
    1. Fill out “Cross Section and Velocity” section of Stream Discharge Data form (Figure G.1):
      1. Point 1 (first line of Stream Discharge Data form)
        1. Point 1 (under Points to Note column) should always be either Left Pin (LPIN) or Right Pin (RPIN). Remember that right and left are defined looking downstream
        2. Distance Along Tagline column will always be the point along the measuring tape at which a measurement was taken. At point 1 this will generally be 0, unless the tape being used does not start at 0 (i.e., it’s been broken).
        3. Water depth at point 1 will always be 0, since the measurement is at the bank pin.
      2. Point 2 (second line of Stream discharge form)
        1. Point 2 will always be Left Edge of Water (LEW) or Right Edge of Water (REW).
        2. Distance along tagline for Point 2 will be the distance from the bank pin to the edge of water as measured on the measuring tape.
          1. In most cases the transition from bank to water is gradual and water depth will be measured as 0 m, i.e., the point where the water meets the land (see Pt 2 LEW, Figure H-2).
          2. If the transition from bank to water is vertical or near-vertical, water depth is measured as close to the land as possible and will be >0 m (see Pt 13 REW, Figure H-2).
      3. Point 3 and on, until edge of water on the other side
        1. Record distance along tagline in row 3.
        2. Measure water depth at this same distance. Measure Water Depth using a meter stick or a surveyor’s rod.
      4. Continue taking measurements across the stream trying to distribute measurements evenly and also positioning measurement locations to represent distinct changes in water depth.
      5. At the edge of water on the far side of the stream, follow instruction ii2a and ii2b in reverse.
  4. Measure velocity
    1. Lay measuring tape parallel to stream designating the section of the stream over which the neutrally buoyant object will be floated and timed.
      1. Make sure the length of the measuring tape extended is long enough to ensure a float time of at least five seconds.
      2. If possible, position the midpoint of the tape measure at the cross section where depth measurements were taken.
      3. Record total travel distance, start-to-transect distance, and transect-to-end distance (the latter two measures provide information on the specific stream reach that was used) on the Stream Discharge Data form.
    2. Drop neutrally buoyant object upstream of upstream end of measuring tape. Make sure it is positioned in the main flow of the stream (“thalweg”).
    3. Use stopwatch to time the float from beginning to end of the designated distance.
      1. Time the float at least five times.
      2. Record travel time for each float on the Stream Discharge Data form, Neutrally Buoyant Object section.
      3. If the neutrally buoyant object float path departs from the main flow of the stream (e.g., goes into a backwater, becomes lodged in debris, etc), redo the float.
  5. When stream measurements are finished, make sure to complete the following:
    1. Start time
    2. Staff gauge height at end
    3. Sensor-reported water depth at end
  6. Once measurements are complete, enter data into Discharge Rating Curve Calculator spreadsheet.
  7. Miscellaneous guidance notes:
    1. If sensor depth cannot be accessed while measurements are being taken (i.e., if smart phone or tablet is not available and/or there is no cell coverage available) it is extremely important to note the exact start time and stop time and staff gauge height at start and at end, so that these times can be used to determine sensor-reported water depth later when access to the sensor data is available.
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7.2.3.Predicting Discharge in Unwadeable Conditions #

For EnviroDIY Sensor Station sites where unwadeable conditions may exist during stormflow and for which rating curve development is intended, a cross section should be chosen where the channel profile (a cross-sectional slice, perpendicular to flow) for measuring discharge is chosen and marked with bank bins (rebar). Discharge is measured here and the channel cross section shape between the two bank pins is mapped.

To delineate the channel cross sectional profile and develop the Stage to Area Predictor spreadsheet used for generating Predicted Wetted Cross-Sectional Area follow these steps:

  1. Find a suitable location at baseflow conditions.
    1. Straight section of stream that is a glide or run with consistent velocity across the channel
    2. Wadeable with a relatively consistent stream bottom (e.g., not many boulders or logs that create eddies)
    3. If possible, a confined channel with clearly defined banks
  2. Line or laser level
    1. Install a 3- to 4-foot rebar (“bank pins”) on both banks and string a line between the two pins perpendicular to stream flow.
    2. Level the line using bubble levels; the line should be level across the whole channel. Use a laser level in the same way and according to equipment specifications.
  3. Use a survey rod to map the entire channel that lies between the two bank pins – this includes dry channel and banks as well as wetted area. This can be done at the same time as discharge measurements according to Section 10.2.1 and Appendix G Section “Discharge Measurement with a Flow Meter.”
  4. Record data in the Channel Cross Section Discharge Form (Figure G.2)
  5. Enter data from the Channel Cross Section Discharge Form into the Stage To Area Predictor (SAP) spreadsheet.
  6. The SAP is now ready to be used for calculating Predicted Wetted Cross Sectional Area. To do this, enter staff gauge depth or sensor depth in the appropriate location in the SAP.

Figure G.2. ChannelCrossSectionDischarge_V7 form used for measuring channel cross section profile dimensions, wetted cross sectional dimensions, and velocity.

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7.2.4.Other Ways to Measure Discharge #

7.2.4.1.Flumes and Weirs #

Possibly the most accurate way of measuring flow in any stream is to install a permanent weir or flume. Installing one of these involves manipulating the stream to correctly still and direct all water into the structure. For this reason, installing a structure like this is expensive, generally requires permitting, and is only feasible in very small streams. If you have the ability to install one of these structures, work with a manufacturer to determine the proper type of flume or weir for your site and the most appropriate installation method. Once the structure is installed, flow can be calculated directly from water depth using equations provided by the flume manufacturer.

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7.2.4.2.Salt Dilution #

Under the proper conditions, a salt dilution can give extremely accurate measurements of flow. In essence, this is solving a basic concentration balance like in high school chemistry. That is, the concentration of salt in the water is equal to the mass of salt divided by the volume. Knowing the mass of salt and the concentration in the water allows you to calculate the water. In reality, the calculation is more complicated because the water in the stream is constantly moving and spreading the salt out and you cannot easily directly measure the salt concentration.  Instead of measuring salt concentration directly, you measure conductivity, knowing that 0.5 mg of NaCl per L leads to an increase of 1 µs/cm in conductivity. Instead of taking a single measurement of the concentration, you continuously monitor the concentration in the stream as the pulse of salt goes by and integrate the values into a single measure of the total amount of salt that passed by.

To do a salt dilution you will need 2 people, a balance, table salt (NaCl), a stopwatch, and a conductivity meter. Select two points on the stream, one to put in the salt and another to record the conductivity. The measurement point should be in a straight, clear section of stream, as free as possible from unusual sources of water turbidity, eddies, or uneven flow. If you have a EnviroDIY Sensor Station installed, the measurement station can be co-located with it. The other point should be sufficiently upstream of your measurement station to allow good width and depth-wise mixing of the stream before reaching the measurement point. Generally it is good to find a place just upstream of a rifle or other source of turbulence and mixing. Try not to have any pools or dead water between the measurement point and salt input point. These points can be picked out long in advance of performing the salt dilution (if you are installing an EnviroDIY Sensor Station, pick your points then). Before going into the field, make a very rough guess of what the streamflow will be. Weigh out approximately 5g of salt for each liter/second of expected stream flow and carefully record the actual exact amount. Dissolve the salt in warm tap water in a well cleaned milk jug or 5 gallon bucket or other container.  Make sure that 100% of the salt is dissolved. Any form of NaCl can be used, but the finer grained salt sold for cooking generally dissolves much more readily than the rock salt sold for keeping roads safe. Do not use “low-sodium” salt. Also calibrate your conductivity meter following the manufacturer’s directions.

At the stream site, have one person stand at the upstream station and the other with the stopwatch, conductivity meter, and datasheet at the measurement station. Take several measurements of the stream conductivity before adding the salt, making note of the time (and timezone) of each measurement. Then the upstream person should smoothly pour all of the dissolved salt into the stream, taking note of the time (and timezone) the salt was dumped.  At the same time, the person downstream should start their stopwatch and record the conductivity of the stream. From that point on, the person downstream should record the elapsed time and conductivity every 5 to 10 seconds until the conductivity has risen and then re-stabilized at the initial conductivity value.  Also record the stream stage at both the time the salt is dumped and the time the conductivity stabilizes. After returning from the field, enter the elapsed time and conductivity data into a new copy of the excel template provided to you by Stroud Water Research Center to calculate the flow. Put a copy of the file on your designated Google, Dropbox, or other shared storage space.

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8.Using the Discharge Rating Curve Calculator #

Every time a Stream Discharge Data Form is completely filled out at the site, it will need to be entered into the Discharge Rating Curve Calculator on the computer. Each Discharge Data Form is a “Discharge Event” within the discharge calculator, and each event represents a single data point found on the “Rating Curve” chart. As explained before, the quantity and quality of data makes a difference in accuracy and completeness of the discharge rating curve. Remember to use the real-time sensor data to time data collecting during the rise, crest and fall of storm flows since these periods can provide multiple “Discharge Events”.

  1. Open the Discharge Rating Curve Calculator.
    1. Detailed instructions are provided on the “Instructions,” “Calculate Discharge,” “Rating Curve,” and “Discharge Event” worksheets found within the workbook.
    2. Comments are found on the worksheets to help inform users of mathematical processes and definitions of vocab used within the workbook.
  2. A button located on the “Rating Curve” worksheet will produce a new “Discharge Event” worksheet where the Discharge Data Form information can be placed.
    1. Left-clicking will generate a blank form where both numeric and identification information from the Discharge Data Form will need to be recorded.
  3. Each “Discharge Event” worksheet provides detailed instructions on how to fill out the worksheet properly to produce an accurate discharge value.
    1. During un-wadeable events, one of  the sub-sections under “Alternative Data Inputs to Cross Section and Velocity Measurements” would need to be filled out instead of the “Cross Section and Velocity Measurements” table (Figure I-1).
    2. Each sub-section is clearly labelled to correspond with the chosen field method indicated on the Discharge Data Form.
    3. Stage-to-Area Predictor uses the Discharge Data Form’s recorded staff gauge height to calculate the “Predicted Wetted Cross Sectional Area” found in both sub-sections of  “Alternative Data Inputs to Cross Section and Velocity Measurements” (Figure H.1.)
  4. A minimum of five “Discharge Event” worksheets needs to be filled out to create a preliminary rating curve within the Discharge Rating Curve Calculator.
    1. Storm peaks are great times to collect discharge data.
    2. Storm periods when water is rising from baseflow or falling from storm peaks are great times to collect discharge data.
    3. Sensor stations with online, real-time data should be used to time discharge data collecting during storm periods.
  5. Discharge Rating Curve Calculator serves two functions.
    1. Aids in calculating discharge from online, real-time sensor depth data.
    2. Derived rating curve equation used to help calculate material loads.

Figure H.1. Screenshot of a Discharge Event worksheet in the Discharge Rating Curve Calculator

Figure H.2. Stage-to-Area Predictor provides cross sectional area value to be used along with alternative velocity measurement methods (neutral buoyant object or flow meter) can be used to produce discharge value during un-wadable conditions.

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9.Using the Load Calculator #

With the help of the calculated rating curves, material loads such as amount of sediment and chloride can be measured, real-time, using data from the EnviroDIY Sensor Station. This could mean knowing the amount of chloride being flushed pass the EnviroDIY Sensor Station within the period of a single storm without having to step outside. The application of tracking material loads will aid the station’s user(s) on monitoring the conditions of the water, inform them on whether action needs to take place to improve water quality, and even the effectiveness of an action being implemented upstream of the EnviroDIY Sensor Station. Calculating material load is a straightforward and simple process that mostly requires importing data and equations from different sources.

Detailed directions are provided in the “Data Import” and “Load Table” worksheets within the Load Calculator spreadsheet, but the basic process for using the Load Calculator spreadsheet is as follows:

  1. Download data from MonitorMyWatershed.org (if data are online) or download the data from the station’s microSD card, and open the file on your personal computer in Excel (csv files will require use of Text to Columns Excel tool).
  2. Choose and then copy the depth, turbidity, and/or conductivity data from the desired time period.  This may be a short period (e.g., a single storm) or a longer period (a week, a season, year, etc.)
  3. Paste the data into a separate spreadsheet and make any necessary corrections to the data.  Use line graphs (online or produced in Excel if data are not online) for visual inspection of the data to identify outliers judged to be inaccurate from sensor fouling (Figure I.1).
    1. In the spreadsheet, edit or remove any out-of-character data spikes so that they fall within the range of nearby (past and future) data points (Figure I.1).  Note which data points have been edited.
    2. This step is usually for the turbidity data, which often shows data spikes that are due to sensor fouling.
  4. Open the Excel workbook “Load Calculator” into which you will paste the final corrected sensor data.
    1. Perform a copy-paste function of the data range from the EnviroDIY Sensor Station data table to the opened Load Calculator spreadsheet.
  5. Incorporate rating curve equations into Load Calculator.
    1. Locate the equations:
      1. Discharge rating curve equation is calculated in the “Discharge Rating Curve Calculator” (Figure I.2) via multiple measurements being recorded in the workbook (Section 10.2).
      2. TSS/turbidity rating curve equation is calculated on your own in an Excel workbook by graphing multiple grab sample results from the EnviroDIY Sensor Station site (Section 10.3).
      3. Chloride/conductivity rating curve equation is calculated on your own in an Excel workbook by graphing multiple grab sample results from the EnviroDIY Sensor Station site (Section 10.3).
    2. Import rating curve equations:
      1. Go to the Discharge Calculator for the corresponding EnviroDIY Sensor Station. Write down the Discharge Rating Curve from the Discharge Calculator and type it into to the appropriate location in “Load Calculator.”
      2. For TSS/turbidity and/or chloride/conductivity, go to personally saved Excel spreadsheets that contain the graphed grab sample data.
      3. Perform a copy-paste function of the slope-intercept formula of the graphs from these spreadsheets to the “Load Calculator.”
  6. Enter Average Offset Between Sensor Depth and Stage (from Discharge Rating Curve Calculator spreadsheet)(Figure I.2 and I.3).
  7. Calculate loads:
    1. Calculations are done automatically within the “Load Calculator” (Figure I.3).
    2. Calculates both sediment and chloride loads in same table.
    3. The “Average Offset Between Sensor Depth and Stage” converts sensor depth to projected staff gauge.
    4. Rating curve equations are used for converting EnviroDIY Sensor Station data into values that will be used in the “Load Calculator.”
    5. Most calculation steps are present to allow the user’s understanding on how the sediment and/or chloride load values are derived.
    6. Load value of each data point within the specified period of time is totaled up to provide a final value for sediment and/or chloride.

Figure I.1. Out-of-character data spikes for a turbidity sensor. Highlighted outlier data points could be removed or corrected to 19 NTU (i.e., approximate NTU level before/after fouling).

Figure I.2. Location of discharge rating curve equation and stage-sensor depth offset in Discharge Rating Curve Calculator spreadsheet.

Figure I.3. Data Import worksheet and Load Table worksheet from Load Calculator. Once populated with rating curve equations, time-series data from sensor station, and Average Offset Between Sensor Depth and Stage the Load Calculator will produce point-in-time fluxes and final loads of sediment and chloride.

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10.Data Patterns #

Ecological Data Patterns

Sensor Fouling Data Patterns

Battery Level as a Diagnostic

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11.Troubleshooting #

To access a printable PDF version of the EnviroDIY Troubleshooting Quick Guide please click the following link: EnviroDIY Sensor Station Troubleshooting Quick Guide. The troubleshooting quick guide is designed to be printed to provide troubleshooting tips while in the field. Further explanations can be found in the text below.

Battery Dies

When battery level goes below ~3.7 V data transfer to the website and download to SD card will stop or be impaired.

  1. Check solar panel and battery connection to the panel itself.
  2. Ensure no corrosion has taken place.
  3. No insect or rodents have chewed wires.
  4. Check solar panel orientation, look at the live data, has it been charging or slowly dying-canopy cover can change and adjustments may need to be made.
  5. Is the cell signal indicator light blinking at more than the given 4 second intervals? This may be an indication it is not finding a cell signal and draining your battery, reset power with reset button or turn ON/OFF.
  6. For given light conditions you may need to upgrade to a larger battery or solar panel or both.

Data From the Real-Time Feed Stops

  1. Cycle the power using either the reset button or turning switch ON/OFF.
    1. Check to see if the data are being recorded on the SD card. check the data card and see if data is being recorded every 5 minutes. When you turn the logger on (with a working battery), you’ll see the green light blink rapidly a couple times, then pause a second, then the red and green lights will blink back and forth 5 times really quickly (less than a second). Then everything will be dark, except for the yellow light which indicates the solar panel is charging the battery. If you stick around until the even 5 minute intervals (3:05, 3:10, 3:15, 3:20), you’ll see the green light turn on along with a red light in the far corner by the sensor jacks. After about 10 seconds, the sensor red light goes off, then you’ll see the small greenish/yellow light on the red cellular board start blinking every 2 seconds. It’ll do this for a little bit as it’s establishing a connection. Once it gets a valid cell connection, it blinks once every 4 seconds for about 10-15 seconds as it’s transmitting the data. Then the cell board light stops and the green light on the Mayfly goes out too, and the board is now asleep. If you aren’t seeing this sort of behavior on the 5-minute intervals, then something is wrong. But looking at the data on the card will also tell you if it’s logging properly and what the battery voltage is. There may be times where the battery is too low to power the cell board, but the Mayfly will still be recording data on the card, so that’s why we need to see what’s being recorded there.
    2. Loggers may “lock up” and stop connecting to the cellular network after a period where the cell network was unavailable or had extremely low signal strength. The only way to get them to “reconnect” is to just cycle the power on the logger.  Anytime you see a logger go offline and the battery voltage wasn’t too low (below 3.7 V)(Fig batt) the last time the network “heard” from the logger, then someone should just simply go to the station and cycle the power using the power switch on the Mayfly. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with cycling the power anytime the stations acts strange.  You should also swap out the memory card when you do this to see if the station has been recording data on the card during the cellular outage, or if for some reason the entire logger was paused.
    3. In cases where the station has marginal cell signal strength (and data transmission stops at times), after the signal is lost the cellular module doesn’t re-join the network properly, so someone has to go out and restart the station.  Should also look at the data card data to see what the battery voltage looks like for the times the logger is offline.
  2. Battery has died (due to issues discussed above), replace battery, possibly with larger model.
  3. Circuit board has for some reason shorted. Possible reasons for shorting:
    1. Cell module “antenna” has contacted the Mayfly board. This antenna is a small board with a wire attached to the cell Xbee board (red arrow in photo below). If the antenna comes in direct contact with the Mayfly board it will damage the board. The standard location for this antenna is outside the logger board case. If this antenna comes in direct contact with the Mayfly board it will most likely damage the board and a replacement will be required.
    2. Water has entered the logger box and contacted the Mayfly Data Logger board. Although the logger boxes are water tight there are ways in which water may enter including: bent hinges of the logger box door, defective logger box seals, debris (e.g.,grass, sticks) between the seals. If water does enter the box a dessicant pack can be used to dry it out, however, unless the source of water entry is dealt with it is likely that the Mayfly board will be damaged with repeated water exposure.
  4. Cell signal may have been lost through a power outage, non-payment on your account, or cell tower issues. If you have ruled out power outage, contact your provider.
  5. Hologram SIM card data plan has not been paid. If data stop on the same day of the month that the plan was last renewed this is likely the problem.  In this case money would just need to be added to the account, at which point data should begin transmitting again. Hologram will email a warning 24 hours prior to expiration.

Only One Sensor Shows Real-time Feed

  1. Check wires from sensor to logger box, make sure it has not been severed.
  2. Open case and check that the connection to the board is firm and that there is no corrosion.
  3. Cycle power by using reset button or turning power switch ON/OFF.

Brown Varnish on Turbidity Sensor

Most of the metal sensors have this effect after a year or more. It’s a chemical reaction between the metal and some of the dissolved minerals in the water in this part of Pennsylvania. It shouldn’t affect the actual window of the sensor since it is optical epoxy and doesn’t attract the minerals like the metal does. We’ve had sensors out for multiple years and only used the stiff side of our general purpose cleaning brush to clear the window. If we have to clean a metal sensor, we’ve used a very weak oxalic acid rinse with gentle scrubbing, followed by a rinse with dilute hydrochloric acid to remove any traces of the oxalic. But again, it’s shouldn’t be necessary. If anyone wants to clean the actual optical window of the turbidity sensor, they should use care not to scratch the window or use a chemical that would interact with the epoxy because it will start to become opaque and that definitely will harm it.

Erratic Depth Measurements

From looking at the graph, it appears that the pressure part of the sensor is blown. You can see when it froze because the conductivity went to 0 overnight, meaning there was no liquid water around the sensor anymore, and then the next day the pressure shot up and said there was 3.5 meters of water. Ever since then, the pressure signal is a combination of depth plus water temperature, because when these sensors fail, the temperature-compensating part of the sensor gets magnified and you start seeing big “pressure” changes that exactly mirror the water temperature readings.

There’s no way to look at the sensor to assess the damage, so you’ll just have to remove it and replace it with a new one.  We’ve never had ice damage before, so we’re not sure if the company is going to replace this one (or three or four of the other DRWI sensors that froze recently). Since Merrill is so shallow, we don’t think it makes sense to put another new sensor in there until we’re sure all of the cold weather is done for the year, otherwise it’ll just break again the next time we get a good freeze.

Highly Variable Measurements

From time to time the CTD sensors arrive defective from the factory and show this type of noisiness. They will often get noisier over time, which is what looks like is happening there, therefore, a replacement sensor will probably be in order.

Spiky Conductivity Measurements

CTD sensor malfunction; replacement sensor needed

Rapid Change in Depth

A rock was lodged in the CTD sensor and pressing against the pressure transducer. That rock lodged in the sensor also somehow caused the conductivity to read abnormally low for some reason. After the rock was removed, conductivity was tested with three separate meters and each read about 1100 μS/cm. So all of the conductivity dated during the period with the inaccurate depth is probably false. This was a unique situation and is not observed regularly.

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12.Delaware River Watershed Initiative Grab Samples #

Grab samples will be analyzed by Stroud Water Research Center for chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and total suspended solids (see Table K-1 below for list of analytes). One sample, usually collected at baseflow conditions by Stroud Water Research Center at the time of EnviroDIY Sensor Station installation, will also be analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus, metals, and other parameters (Table K-1). Final grab sample data will be sent by Stroud Water Research Center to groups as requested and will be posted to the online Delaware River EnviroDIY Sensor Station group.

Process for Collecting and Shipping Grab Samples

  1. Clean the sensors. It is imperative that the sensors are producing accurate data when grab samples are collected, so that sensor data can be matched up with the grab sample data for developing the rating curves.  In high water (when grab samples are often collected) an extension for the sensor brush may be needed so that sensors can be reached for cleaning.
  2. Collect grab sample (see below).
  3. Complete grab sample label with date and time. Make sure that time represents exact time when sample was collected.
  4. Complete Field Visit Data Form. Make sure to complete the Grab Sample Information section on the back side of the data form.
    1. Make sure that date and time are exactly the same as listed on the grab sample label.
    2. *Note: submitting the form online will alert Stroud Water Research Center that a grab sample will be arriving.
  5. Place sample on ice/ice-pack or in refrigerator.
  6. Prepare sample for shipping/delivery.
    1. Make sure to complete chain-of-custody (COC) form.
    2. On COC form make sure date and time are the same as listed on the sample label and on the completed Field Visit Data Form.
  7. Ship sample via FedEx or deliver to Stroud Water Research Center.
    1. No deliveries to Stroud Water Research Center on Saturday or Sunday.
    2. Pre-paid shipping is for FedEx standard overnight; plan shipping so that sample arrives in one day.

Grab Sample Kits

Grab sample containers are 1 L square Nalgene bottles that will come prelabeled (Figure 10.3) along with a kit for cold-preserving and shipping the samples to Stroud Water Research Center for analysis. Each grab sample kit contains the following (Figure 10.4):

  1. 1 L square Nalgene grab sample bottle, prelabeled
  2. Cold pack for shipping
  3. Insulated sealable bag
  4. Chain-of-custody (COC) form
  5. Sealable shipping bag
  6. FedEx shipping form sleeve
  7. Prepaid FedEx standard overnight shipping label

Grab Sample Collection

The process for collecting a grab sample is as follows:

  1. Rinse bottle three times with typical stream water before collecting sample.
  2. Fill bottle with water that is characteristic of current conditions (i.e., make sure it is from the main flow and that it does not contain material churned up from people walking in the stream).
    1. Invert the bottle and submerge it to ⅔ total depth of the water (i.e., mouth of bottle should be facing down and bottle should not fill as you submerge it).
    2. Turn the bottle right side up and begin raising the bottle through the water column at an even pace so that when the bottle reaches the surface it is filled.
    3. Cap the bottle making sure that the cap is clean (rinse it with stream water if need be).
  3. Complete the grab sample bottle label with “Date” and “Time”. Record exact date/time (to the minute) that grab sample bottle was filled with water.
  4. Place sample immediately on ice (or ice pack) in a cooler until shipping.
  5. For every grab sample collected, complete a Field Visit Data Form.
    1. Make sure to fill out Grab Sample Information section of the Field Visit Data Form (back page, Figure 10.5).
    2. Make sure that Date and Time are the same as on the grab sample bottle label.
    3. Enter the completed Field Visit Data Form online at: https://wikiwatershed.org/drwi/. (Email dbressler@stroudcenter.org for the password.) Submitting the form online will alert Stroud Water Research Center that a grab sample will be arriving.

Figure K-3. Grab Sample Information section of Field Visit Data form (back of form, top).

Grab Sample Shipping

If possible grab samples should be shipped to Stroud Water Research Center within 72 hours of the time of collection.  Stroud Water Research Center cannot receive samples on Saturday or Sunday, so if samples are collected Friday-Sunday they should be retained (and kept cold) and shipped on Monday.  This will exceed the 72 hour hold time but it will be noted in the data records and should not affect TSS and chloride data.

The process for shipping grab samples is as follows (see Figure 10.6):

    1. Place labeled grab sample in insulated bag along with frozen cold pack and seal the bag.
    2. Complete chain-of-custody form.
    3. Place insulated bag (containing the grab sample and cold pack) into the shipping bag along with completed chain-of-custody form and seal the bag.
    4. Fill in prepaid FedEx shipping form with your name and date.
    5. Retain top copy of FedEx shipping form for your records.
    6. Insert prepaid FedEx shipping form into the FedEx shipping form sleeve.
    7. Remove backing from shipping sleeve and affix it to the shipping bag.
    8. Ship package via any of the following options:
      • Drop package off at FedEx shipping center (http://www.fedex.com/locate/), making sure to adhere to Express pickup cutoff time for that specific location.
      • Drop package in FedEx dropbox (http://www.fedex.com/us/dropbox/), making sure to adhere to pickup time.
      • Call FedEx and schedule pickup at a suitable location and time (1-800-GOFEDEX, “schedule a pickup”, Account # shown on prepaid shipping labels).
    9. Complete Field Visit Data Form and submit online at https://wikiwatershed.org/drwi/. (Email dbressler@stroudcenter.org for the password.)
      • Make sure to fill out Grab Sample Information (on back).
      • Online submission of the Field Visit Data Form is the electronic record of grab sample submittal process to Stroud Water Research Center.
      • Submitting the Field Visit Data Form will alert the Stroud Water Research Center lab that a shipment will be arriving will be a record of submission.
    10. Email and/or text message the following individuals when samples are shipped:
      1. David Bressler, dbressler@stroudcenter.org, 410-456-1071
      2. Jennie Matkov, jmatkov@stroudcenter.org, 610-324-1159

Grab Sample Analysis

Grab samples are analyzed by Stroud Water Research Center for chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and total suspended solids (Table K-1). One sample, usually a sample collected at baseflow conditions at the time of EnviroDIY Sensor Station installation, is also analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus, metals, and other parameters (Table K-1). Final grab sample data in spreadsheet format will be sent by Stroud Water Research Center to groups as requested; data will also be posted to the Delaware River Sensor Stations online group.

Table K-1. List of analytes measured in grab samples, frequency of analysis, units, and lab.
Analyte Frequency Units Analysis by
Total suspended solids (TSS) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) One sample at baseflow mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Chloride (Cl) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Nitrate-N (NO32- as N) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Nitrate (NO32-) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Nitrite-N (NO2as N) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Nitrite (NO2) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Sulfate (SO42-) Multiple times mg/L Stroud Water Research Center
Ammonium-N (NH4+as N) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Phospate-P (PO43- as P) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Total Dissolved Nitrogen (TDN) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Total Dissolved Phosphorus (TDP) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Total Nitrogen (TN) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Total Phosphorus (TP) One sample at baseflow mg/L Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
Aluminum (Al) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Boron (B) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Calcium (Ca) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Copper (Cu) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Iron (Fe) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Potassium (K) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Magnesum (Mg) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Manganese (Mn) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Sodium (Na) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Phosphorus (P) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Sulfur (S) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Silicon (Si) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
Zinc (Zn) One sample at baseflow mg/L University of Delaware
       
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13.Send Us Feedback #

Please help us improve this guide. You can leave feedback about individual sections (look for the “Was this helpful? Yes or No” text). If your answer is no, or if you see something that needs to be changed, please use the “Suggest an edit” link and fill out a quick form. Your comments will be emailed to the development team.

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